Prenoxad Injection (naloxone hydrochloride 1mg/ml solution for injection) is intended for emergency use in the home or other non-medical setting by appropriate individuals or in a health facility setting for the complete or partial reversal of respiratory depression induced by natural and synthetic opioids, including methadone, diamorphine (diacetylmorphine [INN]) and certain other opioids such as dextropropoxyphene and certain mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics: nalbuphine and pentazocine. For this reason Prenoxad Injection should be carried by persons at risk of such events. It may also be used for the diagnosis of suspected acute opioid overdose.
Naloxone is a competitive antagonist of opioid receptors, that rapidly reverses the effect of morphine and other opioids. Therefore, it may be used as an antagonist drug to reverse opioid overdose.[1,2]
Naloxone has been used worldwide, and for many years, to reverse opioid-induced CNS depression in the context of routine post-operative use in the hospital setting as well as in emergency settings for users of illegal opiates, when administered by physicians, ambulance crews and anaesthesiologists.
Following overdose by heroin injection, death occurs within 1 to 3 hours, limiting the window of opportunity to intervene. Furthermore, most drug overdose deaths occur in the company of others, with up to one in five overdoses being witnessed by others.[5,6] Since the late 1990s there have been successful initiatives in many countries to provide naloxone for administration by individuals who have received instruction in how to reverse opioid overdose while waiting for an ambulance to arrive and medical attention to be provided.[4,5,7] Naloxone use in the community therefore provides an opportunity to save lives and plays a role in harm reduction strategies for opiate misusers.
In 2005, naloxone was made available under UK law to be administered by anyone for the purpose of saving life in an emergency.
Prenoxad Injection is the first presentation of naloxone licensed for emergency use in the home or other non-medical setting by appropriate individuals for the complete or partial reversal of respiratory depression induced by opioids. It should be carried by persons at risk of opioid overdose or their representatives.
Prenoxad Injection may only be made available once the prescriber has assessed the suitability and competence of a client or representative to administer naloxone in the appropriate circumstances.
On this website you will find further information on when and how Prenoxad Injection should be used and a resource to train clients or their representatives on using Prenoxad Injection.
For further details on the provision of naloxone, please view the UK Guidance on the availability of naloxone.